Hitachi’s purchase of UK nuclear power station project, Horizon, is starting to look like a deal cast by fate and the industry’s ever changing dynamics as a truly global business sector.
Established nuclear energy business markets, such as Germany and Japan, have had to re-prioritise their strategies in the wake of the 2011 Fukushima nuclear plant tragedy. But Germany and Japan are approaching the global nuclear business opportunity in completely different directions.
What could have initially be seen as a sign of defeat in the case of RWE npower and E.ON UK announcing their wish to pull out of the Horizon Nuclear Power joint venture in March 2012, is now arguably a positive twist of fate for the Japanese nuclear sector, notably for Hitachi.
As many readers will be aware, Horizon, was previously a joint venture established between the two power giants in 2009 that had been working on proposals for new nuclear power stations at Wylfa, on the Isle of Anglesey, North Wales, and Oldbury-on-Severn, Gloucestershire, South West England.
In press notices issued simultaneously by E.ON and RWE, the backers pointed to capital requirements of the new-build programme as a major stumbling block.
“E.ON has decided to focus its investment in the UK on other strategic projects that will allow us to deliver earlier benefit for customers and our company,” said E.ON UK chief executive Dr Tony Cocker, “rather than the very long-term and large investment new nuclear power calls for.”
While both utilities have re-stated their commitment to other UK energy projects, including significant renewable power build-outs, they still see the value in the Horizon project, but because of the German home market’s wish to phase out nuclear this would have had implications on the industry’s ability to create future profits from plant extensions.
“The bottom line was that the decision to start the process 2009 shows we feel UK nuclear has a future and has good sites,” states Daniel Meredith, corporate PR manager for RWE npower.
“It was a good business opportunity and we still believe that. Fundamentally, what changed is that we had invested £4.5bn in projects across Britain, and more elsewhere across Europe as well, and when the recession hit it started to look sensible to slow down the investment,” said Meredith.
Things came to a head, he adds, when Germany announced the closure of its nuclear industry, effectively spelling the end of any life extensions on German reactors and in turn axing future profits for their owners, including RWE and E.ON.
As a consequence, says Meredith: “We have to get rid of several assets, and the nuclear project in the UK was an order of magnitude larger than any other project.”
As if the stars of fate were aligned, Japanese reactor maker Hitachi stepped forward to buy Horizon for £696m in October.
However, the fact that such a long-term investment remains bankable for companies not affected by Germany’s nuclear shutdown is borne out by the fact that French-owned EDF Energy, the only other company pursuing a new-build programme in the UK, is keen to press ahead with plans.
Speaking at an Energy and Climate Change Select Committee hearing in October, EDF Energy chief executive Vincent de Rivaz said: "Our project team now numbers some 800 people.
“We are creating a world-class team, including individuals who have worked successfully on delivering major projects such the London 2012 Olympics. By the end of this year the project will be ready for a final investment decision."
Michael Stuart, media relations manager at EDF Energy, confirms the company’s Hinkley Point and Sizewell new-build projects have “continued momentum” and things have been positive in reference to generic design assessments.
Like RWE and E.ON, Hitachi is also suffering from the loss of its nuclear market at home. But its circumstances are different: it has cash and is keen to enter new markets to keep its nuclear business going.
In these circumstances, the Horizon offer appeared to come as something of a godsend. Hiroaki Nakanishi, representative executive officer and president of Hitachi, said at the time of the Horizon acquisition: "I am extremely pleased that we have been successful in acquiring Horizon Nuclear Power.
“Today starts our 100-year commitment to the UK and its vision to achieve a long-term, secure, low-carbon and affordable energy supply.”
Consequently, observes Hannah Grimsley, public affairs officer at the Nuclear Industry Association, the whole Horizon affair “wasn’t a reflection on the UK market; it was a reflection on the German market.”
Another industry insider points out that the timing could hardly have been better for Japanese and British nuclear interests: “In Japan there’s been a big policy change and Hitachi had to do something. This offered a way into the UK market.”
The US small medium sized reactor (SMR) market is inching towards becoming a fully fledged part of the nuclear industry, the question is how can all this progress spur an SMR export market for US companies?
Saligny is due to open for business from 2020, ahead of the possible decommissioning of Cernavoda’s first reactor by around 2026. The initial investment will allow for the creation of eight far-underground, concrete-covered storage modules at the facility.
The case for using small modular reactors in Britain may have recently been underscored by the media attention paid to an ex-minister’s anti-renewable climate-change proposal. But a NNL study illustrates how SMRs could fill a need not met by conventional nuclear power plants.